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1 Sicily: Home of the Mafia

The Politics of Heroin in Southeast
Asia

1.
J. M.
Scott, The White Poppy (London: William Heinemann Ltd., 1969), pp.
167-169.

2.
United
Nations, Economic and Social Council, World Trends of the Illicit Traffic
During the War 1939-1945
(E/CS 7/9, November 23, 1946),pp.10,14.


3.
William
P. Morgan, Triad Societies in Hong Kong (Hong Kong: Government Press,
1960), pp. 76-77.

4.
Charles
Siragusa, The Trail of the Poppy (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall,
1966), pp. 180-181.

5.
David
Arman, „The Mafia,“ in Norman MacKenzie, Secret Societies (New York:
Collier Books, 1967), p. 213.

6.
The CIA
had its origins in the wartime Office of Strategic Services (OSS), which was
formed to make sure that intelligence errors like Pearl Harbor did not happen
again. The OSS was disbanded on September 20, 1945, and remained buried in the
State Department, the army, and the navy until January 22, 1946, when President
Truman formed the Central Intelligence Group. With the passage of the National
Security Act in 1947 the group became an agency, and on September 18, 1947, the
CIA was born (David Wise and Thomas B. Ross, The Invisible Government
[New York: Random House, 1964], pp. 91-94).

7.
U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Government Operations,
Or
ganized
Crime and Illicit Traffic in Narcotics,
88th Cong., lst and
2nd
sess., 1964, pt. 4,
p. 913.
1

8.

Nicholas Gage, „Mafioso’s Memoirs Support Valachi’s Testimony About Crime
Syndicate,“ in The New York Times, April 11, 197 1.

9.
Harry
J. Anslinger, The Protectors (New York: Farrar, Straus and Company,
1964), p. 74.

10.
Ibid.

11.
Norman
Lewis, The Honored Society (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1964), pp.
72-73.

12.
Ibid.,
p. 77.

13.

Michele Pantaleone, The Mafia and Politics (London: Chatto & Windus,
1966), p. 52.

14.
Gay
Talese, Honor Thy Father (New York: World Publishing, 1971), pp. 212213.

15.
R.
Ernest Dupuy, Col. U.S.A. Ret., World War II: A Compact History (New
York: Hawthorn Books, 1969), pp. 147-148.

16.
Lt.
Col. Albert N. Garland and Howard McGraw Smith, United States Army in World
War II. The Mediterranean Theater of Operations. Sicily and the Surrender of
Italy
(Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief of Military History, Department
of the Army, 1965), p. 244.

17.
Ibid.,
p. 238.

18.
Estes
Kefauver, Crime in America, quoted in Lewis, The Honored Society, pp.
1819.

19.

Pantaleone, The Mafia and Politics, pp. 54-55. Michele Pantaleone is
probably Italy’s leading authority on the Sicilian Mafia. He himself is a native
and long time resident of Villalba, and so is in a unique position to know what
happened in the village between July 15 and July 21, 1943. Also, many
of Villalba’s residents testified in the Sicilian press that they witnessed the
fighter plane incident and the arrival of the American tanks several days later
(Lewis, The Honored Society, P. 19).

20.

Talese, Honor Thy Father, p. 201.

21.

Pantaleone, The Mafia and Politics, p. 56.

22.
Ibid.,
pp. 56-57.

23.

Gabriel Kolko, The Politics of War (New York: Random House 1968), p. 57.

24.

Pantaleone, The Mafia and Politics, p. 58.

25.
Kolko,
The Politics of War, p. 48.

26.
U.S.
Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States (pt. 3, p.
1114), quoted in Kolko, The Politics of War, p. 55.

27.
Lewis,
The Honored Society, p. 107.

28.

Talese, Honor Thy Father, p. 214.

29.

Pantaleone, The Mafia and Politics, p. 63.

30.
Lewis,
The Honored Society, pp. 146, 173.

31.

Pantaleone, The Mafia and Politics, p. 88.

32.
Ibid.,
p. 52.

33.
Lewis,
The Honored Society, p. 18,

34.

Siragusa, The Trail of the Poppy, p. 83.

35.
Ibid.,
pp. 83, 89.

36.
U.S.
Congress, Senate Subcommittee on Improvements in the Federal Criminal Code,
Committee of the Judiciary, Illicit Narcotics Traffic, 84th Cong., Ist
sess., 1955, p. 99.

37.

Official correspondence of Michael G. Picini, Federal Bureau of Narcotics, to
agent Dennis Doyle, August 1963. Picini and Doyle were discussing whether or not
to use Sami El Khoury as an informant now that he had been released from prison.
The authors were permitted to read the correspondence at the Bureau of Narcotics
and Dangerous Drugs, Washington, D.C., October 14, 1971.

38.

Interview with an agent, U.S. Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs,
Washington, D.C., October 26, 1971.

39.
Danilo
Dolci, Report from Palermo (New York: The Viking Press, 1970), pp.
118-120.

40.

Pantaleone, The Mafia and Politics, p. 188.

41.
Ibid.,
p. 192.

42.

Interview with an agent, U.S. Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs,
Washington, D.C., October 14, 1971.

43.
Ibid.

44.

Interview with an agent, U.S. Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, New
Haven, Connecticut, November 18, 1971.

45.
Harry
J. Anslinger, The Murderers (New York: Farrar, Straus and Company, 1961),
p. 106. (Emphasis added.)

46.
Hank
Messick, Lansky (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1971), p. 137.

47.
Ibid.,
pp. 87-88.

48.
Ibid.,
p. 89.

49.
Ibid.

50.
Ed
Reid, The Grim Reapers (Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, 1969), pp. 9092.

51.
Interview with an agent, U.S. Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, Washington, D.C., October 14, 1971.

52.
Senate
Committee on Government Operations,
Organized Crime and Illicit Traffic in Narcotics,
88th Cong., Ist and 2nd
sess., pt. 4, p. 891.

53.
Ibid., p. 885.

54.
The New York
Times,
December 1,
1969, p. 42.

55.

Messick,
Lansky, pp.
169-170.

56.

United Nations, Department of Social Affairs,
Bulletin on Narcotics 5, no. 2, (April-June 1953), 48. (Emphasis
added.)



 

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